没有合成,塑料ky面料,我们就没有瑜珈裤瑜伽-ING,没有弹性的袜子,不吸水运动衫。我们可以穿着这些塑料注入的衣服一次,在洗衣机扔,并重复,每个周期脱落可能有10万名合成纤维。许多颗粒最终得到倾倒入河流和海洋,他们在动物要嵌入和水柱的涡流,并在沉积物中,几乎不朽的文物贴敷 our distant descendants to one day dig up.

In 2015, Congress banned microbeads, those little bits of 塑料 used in face scrubs that companies thought would be A-OK for the environment but instead ended up tainting the world so thoroughly that the public shamed the industry to change. In the short few years since then, more 和 more research has shown just how pervasive other micro塑料 pollution has become: Bits of synthetic fiber like polyester have been blowing to the 山的顶部进入北极 和 washing into watersheds like the San Francisco Bay, which collects 7 trillion micro塑料 particles every year。你喝 a good amount of the stuff, 事实上。

时间已经到了让微纤维新微珠。但保持微小的塑料释放到环境中也不会那么容易完全禁止,化纤纺织,像一般的塑料,现在在现代生活中不可缺少的。相反,我们必须让有关合成服装更聪明,从时尚界以及洗衣机的制造商要求采取行动。运动已经开始,所以准备好听到这个词的多很多 shedability.

“It's reaching a crescendo with every new study that comes out that shows that microplastics are in our food, in our drinking water,” says Nick Lapis, director of advocacy for Californians Against Waste. “I think it's going to reach a point of no return where people say 'I don't want to be consuming 塑料,' 和 I think we're close to there.”

To get a sense of the scale of this problem, let’s bring it down to a single city: Toronto. 一项研究 计算,洗衣单负荷可能棚91000到138000微纤维。全市120万个家庭做了一个平均每年219个负载。所以每年,多伦多可能是洗230000亿至36万亿微纤维到其废水。如此,污水处理的地方83之间隔绝于塑料微粒的99.9%的从输入,这取决于设备和你在寻找什么研究,但仍然意味着234十亿至356个十亿微纤维流入环境,每年从一个城市。

And the problem is getting worse. The rise of so-called fast fashion—cheap, crappy clothing meant to last but a moment—has flooded the market with garments that easily fray and more readily shed synthetic fibers. In 1950, the textile 和 clothing industries used about 2 million tons of synthetic materials; by 2010 it had climbed to 5000万吨. Stretchy jeans, 袜子, undies—you name it, 和 it’s probably made at least partly of synthetic materials.

A picture is still emerging of what all this micro塑料 pollution amounts to. In August, the World Health Organization reported that we’re all drinking heaps of micro塑料s. It’s still too early to say that’s a bad thing, but it’s also too early to say it’s 一件坏事。

“One of the challenges is demonstrating there actually is harm from microfibers,” says Marcus Eriksen, research director of the 5 Gyres Institute. “If you can't show definitive proof that this causes pain to someone, people are going to say, 'Why change?' I've always argued that it's so ubiquitous that we really don't have the luxury of waiting until a problem happens.”

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那么该怎么办?放逐快时尚将是一个简单的办法,但是,从可行的远。一个更好的选择是迫使该行业从高shedability衣服移开凡能,返回到抵抗磨损佳品。 (评请求发送到的美国时装设计师,并没有返回美国时装工业协会理事会。)

We can also capture the microfibers 之前 they leave our homes. 在今年早些时候的一项研究 发现,棉绒LUV-R滤波器,其安装到一个壁旁边的洗衣机,并连接到排放软管,捕获的微纤维的87%的平均,关于污水处理厂的相同功效。作者指出,如果每家每户都在多伦多有这样一个过滤器,它会阻止20万亿至310000亿纤维进入城市的污水。

你也可以买 专用袋 to wash your clothes in or use a 洗衣机球 that grabs the fibers. Better yet, we can pressure manufacturers to install filters in every washing machine that leaves the factory.

捕获这些纤维 之前 他们得到的设施和它们的适当处置是非常重要的,因为配套设施还没有自觉地过滤掉微纤维。取而代之的是,处理过程中这是一个从废水中分离的污泥最终螯合微纤维。此污泥经常散布作为肥料上的字段,并从那里微纤维或者洗到河流或在现场干并吹走。互补的战术家滤波将改造我们的污水处理设施,更刻意封存微纤维:为此,聪明的18岁获得了今年的谷歌科学博览会有液体 that attracts micro塑料s like a magnet.

其中,问题将变得棘手,并在运动停止超细纤维污染从迅速和有效的运动偏离禁止微珠,是微珠是愚蠢的和不必要的,首先,和微纤维都是无所不在的和有益的。公司接受微球,因为他们使肌肤去角质最便宜的方式,与人民奋起抗议的做法。 “摆脱的东西是新的和完全没有必要是轻松了很多,说:”青金石反对浪费的加州人。 “我认为,与微纤维的问题是大家都喜欢我们的化纤衣物。”

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“我认为,我们要回顾这一刻,并认为这是奇怪的是,首先,你可以使大棚塑料微纤维的任何数量的,那有没有限制的产品,”青金石说。 “其次,我认为不具有过滤器清洗机的想法是要看起来很可笑,就像那将是不可思议的车没有消声器或干燥机中没有皮棉陷阱”。

It’s these kind of “upstream” mitigation measures that scientists 和 policymakers are increasingly turning to, instead of 愚蠢 试图从海洋舀起的塑料件不计其数。 “有什么东西这么多便宜和方便了解在您自己的洗衣机,而不是一旦它成为了远在千里之外的太平洋中部固定的问题,说:”斯克里普斯海洋学家詹尼弗·布兰登,谁研究塑料微粒。 “这绝对是科学家们正试图将一些政策和税收的方式和所有那些各种各样的事情来阻止它我们不得不清理这些偏远的岛屿之前。”

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Ladies 和 gentlemen, ready your pitchforks.


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亚光西蒙 is a science journalist at WIRED, where he covers biology, robotics, cannabis, 和 the environment. He’s also the author of 活死人的困境: What Real-Life Zombies Reveal About Our World—And Ourselves, 和 The Wasp That Brainwashed the Caterpillar,从而赢得了亚历克斯奖。